8:30 AM - 10:00 AM
Symposium Gardner A
THE PHILOSOPHY OF UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH TRAINING: THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
8:30 AM - 10:00 AM Session 1100
Co-chairs: Janine P. Buckner (Seton Hall University), Susan A. Nolan (Seton Hall University)
This symposium provides a forum for the discussion of the philosophy of undergraduate research training. Papers highlight challenges and innovations related to theoretical and practical considerations for courses in statistics and research methods, as well as the hands-on conducting of research that stretches beyond the scope of a single course and constitute a wider curricular goal. The first paper will discuss online and other computer-based learning activities that allow students to experience active, self-directed learning. Another paper will discuss the value of teaching qualitative statistical methods to undergraduate students in applied psychology courses in a way that maximizes student participation and comprehension. A third paper will focus upon the perceived responsibility of departments – both professors and students involved in conducting research – to expand awareness of ethical treatment of participants in research. Another paper will present a sequence of courses that prepares students for their capstone experience. The final segment of this presentation will be a guided discussion forum, led by the symposium chairs, in which implications for these models will be discussed. We anticipate that this symposium will provide a framework for consideration of both methodological and pedagogical topics as they relate to statistics and research design.
PREPARING STUDENTS FOR THE RESEARCH EXPERIENCE IN THE LARGE-ENROLLMENT INTRODUCTORY PSYCHOLOGY COURSE
Michael Vigorito (Seton Hall University)
The successful researcher is an independent learner on a path of self-discovery of original knowledge. The traditional introductory psychology lecture course, however, encourages passive learning and involves what Appleby (2003) described as “Three-degrees of separation from original knowledge”. I describe a hybrid introductory course that encourages students to develop as independent learners by replacing half of the traditional lectures with computer-based learning activities that encourage active, self-directed learning. The activities prepare psychology majors for subsequent research-related courses.
THE INTRODUCTION AND APPLICATION OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN PSYCHOLOGY COURSES
Bonnie A. Green, Sussie Eshun (East Stroudsburg University of Pennsylvania)
Our presentation focuses on the application of qualitative statistical knowledge to applied Psychology courses such as Human Sexuality and Cross-Cultural Psychology in a way that maximizes student participation and comprehension. Undergraduate students take a series of required courses in behavioral statistics and experimental design that provide them with the theoretical basis of qualitative research, which they then apply to other upper-level courses. We will demonstrate how this has worked in our department.
ETHICS AND THE IRB IN THE CAPSTONE COURSE
Mary T. Fitzpatrick (Molloy College)
The Senior Seminar Capstone Course includes extensive efforts to expand students’ ethical awareness. It includes a review of ethical principles, application of ethics to case scenarios, and an introduction to the IRB. It is expected that the student, working with an advisor, will submit a proposal to our IRB. This method has been supported by research involving several undergraduate programs, and we aim to involve all undergraduate departments in similar efforts.
PREPARING UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS FOR A CAPSTONE RESEARCH EXPERIENCE
Richard Wesp, Sussie Eshun (East Stroudsburg University of Pennsylvania)
We will describe a course sequence that is preparation for the capstone experiment required of students in our Bachelor of Science in Research and Applications degree program. Activities include an overview of research skills in our introductory course, review and application of methods in separate courses on statistics and design, and practice developing studies in upper-level content courses. In their final year, students write a major literature review in one semester, and conduct an experiment based on that review in a subsequent semester.
PEDAGOGICAL MODELS OF UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH METHODS AND STATISTICS COURSES: AN INTERACTIVE DISCUSSION
Susan A. Nolan, Janine P. Buckner (Seton Hall University)
Pedagogical models for research methods and statistics will be discussed in a structured, interactive forum. Topics will include methods for teaching methods courses, the utility of combining statistics and research methods into an integrated two-semester sequence, and the teaching of research through honors programs, independent study projects, and in content-based courses. By eliciting feedback from attendees, we will discuss how such goals can be structured within the context of research methods and statistics courses.
EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY SYMPOSIUM
8:30 AM - 10:00 AM Session 1101
Chair: Steven M Platek (Drexel University)
Recently, evolutionary theory has been applied to the study of human behavior. This symposium presents 5 papers that bear on recently emerging findings in evolutionary psychology. Barnacz et al. will discuss their findings that mirror exposure enhances deception detection abilities, a finding the links the evolution of self-processing with the evolution of deception. Johnson et al. show that expression of autistic traits negatively impacts self-processing and one’s ability to detect deception. Levin et al. demonstrate using fMRI sex differences in the neural substrates associated with sex-specific spatial cognition. Thomson et al. will discuss their new research on the cognitive factors that are involved in romantic jealousy. Finally, Arigo et al. discuss the role of evolutionary factors (e.g., reproductive fitness) and clinical syndromes such as anxiety. This symposium integrates the application of evolutionary meta-theory to several sub-dicsiplines of modern experimental and clinical psychology.
DOES SELF MIRROR EXPOSURE ENHANCE DECEPTION DETECTION ABILITY?
Allison Barnacz, Amanda Johnson, Sarah Malcolm, Julian P. Keenan (Montclair State University)
Self-awareness is thought to enhance ones ability to detect deception (Keenan et al. 2003). Participants were seated in front of a mirror for five minutes while “waiting” for the experiment to begin. After which they completed an audio deception detection task in which they had to decide whether or not actors were being deceptive or truthful. Mirror conditions included ‘no mirror-exposure’, ‘regular mirror exposure’, and ‘true mirror exposure’. Results indicate that self-mirror exposure facilitates deception detection.
DECEPTION AS AN EVOLUTIONARY ADVANTAGE OF SELF-AWARENESS
Amanda Johnson, Julian P. Keenan (Montclair State University)
Social based strategies such as deception may require a theory of mind. Individuals with developmental disorders have deficits in deception that may be related to deficits in ToM. Participants were asked to rate the believability of videotaped actors. We found an inverse relationship between autistic tendencies and deception detection. Increased self-awareness scores were related to increased confidence when determining the believability of an actor. Results suggest deception detection is related to both Self-awareness and ToM.
SEX DIFFERENCES IN SPATIAL COGNITION: BEHAVIORAL AND NEURAL PERSPECTIVES
Sarah L. Levin (Drexel University), Feroze B. Mohamed (Temply University Hospital), Steven M. Platek (Drexel University)
Here we investigated both behavioral and neural sex differences in sex-specific spatial abilities. Experiment 1 shows a performance by sex advantage and Experiment 2, using fMRI shows unique neural activation for sex-specific processing. This data extends claims for sex-specific spatial cognitive abilities by demonstrating both behavioral and neural sex differences consistent with an evolutionary model, which suggests sexual selection favored gender differences in such abilities and the neural substrates that sub-serve those processes.
COGNITIVE FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH ROMANTIC JEALOUSY
Jaime W. Thomson, Steven M. Platek (Drexel University)
The purpose of this study is to investigate the cognitive factors associated with romantic jealousy in males and females. Subjects were asked to complete a modified version of a jeal-ousy-based stroop task after being primed with sexual or emotional jealousy vignettes. Results show males are more affected by sexual jealousy priming, and the reverse was true for females.
EVOLUTIONARY INVESTIGATION OF ANXIETY
Danielle R. Arigo, Steven M. Platek (Drexel University)
Subjects were asked to rate digital images according to level of anxiety provoked: rating ranged from 1 (no anxiety) to 10 (maximum anxiety), with responses providing an estimate of genotypic constraint for anxiety. Subjects were also asked to provide information regarding general anxiety level (Trait Anxiety Scale), self-esteem (SE), sexual self-esteem (SSE), and sexual history. Results of this larger study indicate that relationships among self-esteem, anxiety, and sexual history exist consistent with evolutionary hypotheses.
ASSESSMENT OF UNDERGRADUATE PSYCHOLOGY CURRICULUM: THE PRACTICES & EXPERIENCES OF THREE PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENTS
8:30 AM - 10:00 AM Session 1102
Chair: Francis W. Craig (Mansfield University)
Discussant: Barney Beins (Ithaca College)
Brian Loher (Mansfield University), Theodore N. Bosack (Providence College), Michael L. Stoloff (James Madision University)
Working within a curriculum model that assesses learning is one that is intuitively appealing to many academic psychologists. However, developing or maintaining the conditions that are important for curricular outcomes assessment to occur can be quite challenging, if not altogether overwhelming. Complicating assessment efforts are the considerable variations in institutional size, focus, faculty cohesiveness and student characteristics that exist across universities. In this panel, psychology faculty from three different universities— a small state system university (Mansfield); a moderately-sized competitive public university (James Madison); and a small-sized competitive private college (Providence)— will each discuss:
- Their assessment models and its development.
After departmental presentations, Dr. Beins will identify the common and unique characteristics of each model, and discuss the challenges and rewards of curricular assessment.
It is hoped that faculty that attend this panel will:
- Understand ways to build assessment into their curriculum.
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES ON SIBLING ABUSE:
A COGNITIVE-ECOLOGICAL APPROACH
8:30 AM - 10:00 AM Session 1103
Co-chairs: Mizuho Arai (University of Massachusetts Boston), John Kim (Boston University)
Internationally, there has been very little attention to sibling abuse, despite evidence in the United States that various forms of aggression and coercion by siblings can have long-lasting negative effects. In general, aggressive and coercive behaviors are considered by parents and professionals alike to be normal parts of sibling relationships. Contributors to this symposium present analyses of qualitative data from around the world concerning the kinds of sibling behaviors considered to be extremely, moderately, or mildly abusive.
SIBLING ABUSE IN JAPAN, TAIWAN, AND KOREA
Mizuho Arai (University of Massachusetts Boston)
SIBLING ABUSE IN JAPAN, TAIWAN, AND KOREA
Shiho Takagi (Boston University)
SIBLING ABUSE IN JAPAN, TAIWAN, AND KOREA
John Kim (Boston University)
SIBLING ABUSE IN MEXICO AND NICARAGUA
Barbara Farell (Boston University)
SIBLING ABUSE IN MEXICO AND NICARAGUA
Ryan Clark (Boston University)
SIBLING ABUSE IN MEXICO AND NICARAGUA
Marta Miret (Boston University)
SIBLING ABUSE IN GERMANY
Julia Konig (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Munich)
SIBLING ABUSE IN ISRAEL AND TURKEY
Karen Rabi (Boston University)
SIBLING ABUSE IN ISRAEL AND TURKEY
Alev Yalcinkaya (University of Massachusetts Boston)
SIBLING ABUSE IN AUSTRALIA AND CANADA
Elizabeth Roach (Boston University)
SIBLING ABUSE IN AUSTRALIA AND CANADA
David Oh (Boston University)
SIBLING ABUSE IN SAUDI ARABIA
Majed Ashy (Harvard Medical School)
SIBLING ABUSE IN SAUDI ARABIA
Mona Shabab (Boston University)
PROBLEM SOLVING, JUDGEMENT, AND DECISION MAKING PAPERS
8:30 AM - 10:00 AM Session 1104
Co-chairs: Robert S. Ryan (Kutztown University)
Chair of session will be Robert S. Ryan
COMPARING ALGEBRA WORD PROBLEMS FACILITATES INDUCING AN ABSTRACT SCHEMA FOR A SOLUTION PROCEDURE, BUT NOT A GENERAL PRINCIPLE
Robert S. Ryan, Lakshmi Nair (Kutztown University), Jaime Knudsen (George Washington University), Laura Kise, Alyssa Rizzo, Moshe Machlev (Kutztown University)
Comparing analogies facilitates inducing an abstract schema for a structure that is useful for solving similar problems. But algebra problems can have structures not only at a procedural level but also at a deeper principle level. Participants who compared algebra word problems were better able to solve new problems, but only if the solution procedures were the same as the examples. This suggests that they induced a schema for the procedure, but not the principle.
THE EFFECTS OF NEGATIVE PRIMING AND TIME PRESSURE ON CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING
Zachary Lynn (Hofstra University)
This paper examines the effects of negative priming and time pressure on creative problem solving, using the negative priming paradigm developed by Smith (2003), but adding time pressure, a variable not often studied. Expected conclusions were main effects of time pressure and negative priming on originality and practicality (the two creativity measures), and a significant interaction, which was the most compelling finding. The implications of these findings for real-world problem solving are examined.
THE APPLICATION OF PSYCHOPHYSICS TO THE PERCEPTION OF CONTINGENCY
Lorraine Allan, Shepard Siegel (Mc Master University)
There are many psychological tasks which involve the pairing of binary variables. The various tasks used, while similar in structure, typically address different questions and are motivated by different theoretical traditions. We examine two such tasks: contingency judgments and signal detection. We apply a psychophysical analysis to contingency judgment data, and demonstrate that this approach provides a novel interpretation of a well-established but little understood phenomenon – the outcome density effect.
COMPETITION AMONG CAUSES IS A CONTRAST PROCESS
Christine Darredeau, Andrew G. Baker (McGill University)
The presence of strong predictors of an outcome reduces causal judgments of moderate predictors. Our results challenge traditional accounts of this phenomenon by showing that when competing predictors are all either positively or negatively related to the outcome, causal judgments of moderate predictors are reduced; however, consistent with a contrast hypothesis, when they are of opposite polarity judgments are enhanced. We found similar results using either one or two strong competing predictors.
HUMAN JUDGMENTS OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE CAUSAL CHAINS
Irina I. Baetu, Andrew G. Baker (McGill University)
Causal chains were studied in a human contingency preparation. Participants were presented with contingency information about the relationship between events A and B, as well as events B and C. Despite never having experienced A and C together, participants rated the A-C relationship. A-C ratings were a multiplicative function of the A-B and B-C contingencies, confirming our statistical model and associative models of learning based on mediated generalization and mediated conditioning.
NEED FOR COGNITION AND CROSS EXAMINATION: WHAT HELPS JURORS UNDERSTAND FLAWS IN SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE
Jessica Salerno (Fletcher Allen Healthcare), Michelle McCauley (Middlebury College)
Jurors are often asked to evaluate scientific evidence. This research assess whether cross-examination, deliberation and jurors’ Need for Cognition scores all significantly influenced mock jurors’ ability to evaluate and distinguish between flawed and valid expert scientific testimony. Those participants low in NC needed the help of cross-examination and deliberation to reach
Paper Fairfax B
LEARNING AND MOTIVATION PAPERS
8:30 AM - 10:00 AM Session 1105
Chair: David A. Townsend (Rutgers University)
FOCUS PAPER: AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR: CORTICOLIMBIC SEROTONIN AND RECEPTOR SUBTYPES
Klaus Miczek (Tufts University)
WHERE HAS THE FEAR GONE?: CUE COMPETITION IS NOT A RESULT OF THE DIVISION OF A LIMITED RESOURCE.
Kouji Urushihara, Michael Karmin, Ralph R. Miller (State University of New York at Binghamton)
Two lick suppression experiments with rats investigated the relationship between fear to a discrete CS and that to the conditioning context. It is well known that fear to a conditioning context decreases when footshock US presentations are signaled by a CS. We found that when the CS was presented for longer durations during conditioning or when the CS was massively preexposed before conditioning, fear to the context decreased, despite fear to the CS also decreasing.
AGE AND SEX INFLUENCES ON INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN DOMAIN-SPECIFIC AND GENERAL LEARNING ABILITIES IN MICE
David A. Townsend, Loius D. Matzel (Rutgers University)
To elucidate the age and sex effects on general and domain-specific cognitive abilities, male and female BALB/c mice were run through an extensive test battery. Young adult (3 month) and aged (19 month) mice were assessed during acquisition on seven learning tasks (Lashley, Spatial Plus, and Spatial Water Mazes, Odor Discrimination, Passive Avoidance, Fear Conditioning, and Reinforced Alternation), as well as tests of long term memory, and measures of sensory/motor function, emotionality, and stress reactivity.
A+/AX+ VS. AX+/A+ CONDITIONING: DIFFERENCES IN TASTE-MEDIATED ODOR POTENTIATION
Robert Batsell (Kalamazoo College), John D. Batson (Furman University)
Recent work suggests odor-aversion conditioning is stronger following AX+/A+ conditioning compared to A+/AX+ conditioning with odor (A) and taste (X) cues. In Experiment 1, AX+/ A+ conditioning produced significantly stronger odor aversions than either A+/AX+ or A+/A+ conditioning, which did not differ. The interpretation that A+/AX+ conditioning is weaker because of the absence of a taste-odor within-compound association was not supported in Experiment 2. These results are interpreted in terms of a taste-odor configural association.
REDUCTION OF COCAINE SEEKING BY A CONDITIONED INHIBITOR FOR FOOD
Stanley . J. Weiss, David N. Kearns (American University)
Rats’ lever-presses were reinforced by food when a click was present and by cocaine when a tone was present. Reinforcement was unavailable (extinction) when these stimuli were absent. Using the A+/AB- paradigm, a conditioned inhibitor for food was created by making food unavailable when a light was superimposed on the click. On a stimulus compounding test, the light reduced cocaine seeking in tone by 95%. This demonstration that a non-drug-related appetitive conditioned inhibitor essentially eliminated drug seeking could have implications for the treatment of drug abuse.
PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE: WHAT STUDENTS NEED TO KNOW ABOUT CAREERS IN PSYCHOLOGY
8:30 AM - 10:00 AM Session 1106
The most recent national level data on employment, salaries, and debt of those trained at the bachelors, masters, and doctoral levels will be presented. Discussion of these data will include the impact of larger forces external to psychology (shifting demographics, managed care, and the economy), and offer tips for marketing yourself and succeeding in job searches.
CAREERS IN PSYCHOLOGY
William E. Pate, II (American Psychological Association)
OBTAINING A JOB WITH A PSYCHOLOGY DEGREE
Marcos Salazar (American Psychological Association)
EXAMINING THE FADIGN AFFECT BIAS IN EXISTENTIAL AND REGULAR EVENTS OF THE ELDERLY
Michelle Gerth (Christopher Newport University)
Participants recorded negative and positive, existential (life defining) and regular events, which were either recent (witin the last 18 years) or remote (outside 18 years). Negative events faded to a greater degree over time than positive events, and negative recent existential events faded faster than negative recent regular events. The fading affect bias applies to the elderly and is greater for specific types of events.
THE CONTRIBUTION OF NEED FOR COGNITION TO READING COMPREHENSION IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS
Melinda D. Hodgkiss, Susan Ruark, Kelly B. Cartwright (Christopher Newport University)
Need for Cognition (NFC), the tendency to enjoy and engage in effortful cognitive activities, is related to several variables, including verbal ability, but little work has investigated the relation of NFC to reading skill. This study investigated the relation of NFC to reading frequency and reading comprehension in a sample of 60 university students. Results indicated that NFC contributed significant variance to reading comprehension over the contributions of reading frequency and verbal ability, as predicted.
POWER TO BIND: THE EFFECTS OF COLOR ON WITHIN-PAIR MEMORY CONJUNCTION ERRORS
Sharon Hannigan, Alan Searleman, Courtney Wheeler (St. Lawrence University), Mark Reinitz (University of Puget Sound)
Memory conjunction errors are the miscombination of features from different sources resulting in a false memory of a stimulus that hadn’t been previously viewed. In this study, pairs of faces were sequentially presented either in black and white or tinted the same or different colors. Upon subsequent testing for face recognition, significantly more within-in pair conjunction errors were made in the Same Color condition than in either the No Color or Different Color conditions.
SIMULTANEITY OVERPOWERS THE EFFECT OF COLOR ON MEMORY CONJUNCTION ERRORS FOR PAIRED FACES
Alan Searleman, Sharon Hannigan, Adam Christensen (St. Lawrence University), Mark Reinitz (University of Puget Sound)
People sometimes make memory conjunction errors for faces, mistakenly perceiving a new face as being one previously seen if it consists of features that occurred in two separate faces viewed earlier. The present study attempted to influence the number of such errors by tinting some of the paired faces either the same or different colors. The results indicated that color could not override the powerful influence of simultaneous presentation of faces in the study phase.
FACILITATING FLOW EXPERIENCES AMONG UNDERGRADUATE MUSICIANS
Stacy Whitcomb, Arvid Bloom, Paula Skutnick-Henley (West Chester University)
In a follow-up study, we examined musicians’ ability to attain a state of “flow” when they play their instruments or sing. A survey completed by 64 undergraduate music majors highlighted three key predictors of flow proneness: self confidence and self trust while playing, the ability to play without self criticism, and the ability to maintain focus on the music. We offer suggestions to help college student music majors more consistently achieve flow.
Poster 6 EXAMING GENDER STEREOTYPES IN MEDIA
Linday M. Boutwell, Kristin M. Wilson, Jefferey A. Gibbons (Christopher Newport University)
Participants watched movies. Character sex is remembered best when men play lead reoles in positive stories and character sex is recalled porrly wehn women protray the lead roeles in negative stories.
INVESTIGATING THE RELATION OF GENDER STEREOTYPES TO MEMORY
Kristin M. Wilson, Linday M. Boutwell, Jefferey A. Gibbons (Christopher Newport University)
Strangor (1988) explained that the groupings of characeristics that form steretopes become associated with various social groups over time. These heuristics allow individuals to make quick judgments about other individuals. the extent to which these heuristics affect an individual’s memory can be driven by sex role stereotypes.
EVALUATING MEMORY FOR THE ACTIONS OF MEN AND WOMEN IN STEREOTYPICALLY MASCULINE, FEMININE, AND GENDER-NEUTRAL ROLES
Jefferey A. Gibbons (Christopher Newport University), Cheryl A. Zerbe-Taylor (Texas Christian University)
Gibbons et al. (2003) found that paticipants correctly and incorrectly recognized male photographs as a malpracticing plastic surgeon best. Givvons et al. (2002) replicated the procedure in Gibbons et al. (2003) found that female photographs were correctly and incorrectly recognized as the lead chracter more frequently than male photographs across positive and negative roles. Character sex was recalled best when men played the lead character in positive stories. The results suggest that gender roles drive memories for character actions.
MOVIES AFFECT HOW CHARACTER SEX IS REMEMBERED IN POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE STORIES WITH MALE AND FEMALE LEAD CHARACTERS
Ashton Hurdle, Kristin M. Wison, Jefferey A. Gibbons (Christopher Newport University)
The current study was a follow-up to previous research examining the way character sex is remembered across stories with male/femaile and leading/supporting characters in positive and negative roles. Participants recalled character sex for female leads when watching positive movies and they recalle character sex best male leads when watching negative movies. Future research will extend the study and debilitate participants’ memory to a greater degree.
EXAMINING THE EFFECTS OF SOCIAL DISCLOSURE ON STORYTELLING PATTERNS AND MOOD
Stephanie E. Pulas (Christopher Newport University)
Past research has shown that emotions for negative events fade faster over time than emotions for positive events (Walker, Vogl, & Thompson, 1997). However, several moderating factors such as storytelling and social disclosures aided in faster fading of negative emotions over a period of time, while maintaining positive emotions (Skowronski, Gibbons, Vogl & Walker, in press). The current study examined the origins of the FAB.
EXAMING THE EFFECT OF STORYTELLING BEHAVIORS ON MOOD
Rebecca D. Warme, Jeffrey A. Gibbons (Christopher Newport University)
We evaluated the initial and current affect of positive and negative life events. Negative emotions associated wih negative events faded more when participants told their stories to more different types of people compared to when participants told their stories to few different types of people. This finding showed that the fading affect fias was moderated by the number of different types of people. Conversely, the number of stories did not moderate the fading affect bias.
EXAMINING THE FADING AFFECT BIAS IN EXISTENTIAL AND REGULAR EVENTS OF COLLEGE-AGED STUDENTS
Trisan N. Johnson, Amy J. Cumberland (Christopher Newport University)
The results of this experiment replicated the Fading Affect Bias (FAB) in which negative events fade more than positive events. The number of people events were shared with also indicated a relation between rehearsal ratings and fading affect bias. the results suggest that regular remote events faded faster than regular recent events. Furthermore, he results suggest that fading occurs mor for regular events over time than for existential moments.