Saturday AM: 2150-2152
LAY DESCRIPTIONS OF MENTAL ILLNESS
Tanvi Zaveri (Boston University)
To explore how lay individuals define mental illness and the degree to which these definitions are complementary or devaluing. 1) We asked 243 students at two Eastern Universities how they would define mental illness and how their society would define it. 2) We then selected the words or phrases that they provided and asked another set of 96 students to rate these words for their positive and negative connotations and established ratings for each of the words or phrases on the basis of these responses. 3) We then coded the original words and phrases. We hypothesize that such descriptions will be rated as generally highly negative and that individual definitions will be more positive relative to the definitions that they attributed to their societies. Our findings will be discussed in context of cross-cultural attitudes toward mental illness.
KOREAN PERSPECTIVES ON MENTAL ILLNESS
Hyo Soon You (Korean Open University), John Kim (Boston University)
This presentation will focus on research examining current attitudes toward mental illness in Korea. Specifically, this talk will discuss aspects of social cognition that impact attitudes toward and perceptions of mental illness in Korea.
CLINICAL INTERVENTION PAPERS
8:30 AM - 10:00 AM Session 2153
Chair: Mary E. Kelly (Seton Hall University)
A MULTIPERSPECTIVE EVALUATION OF DESIRABILITY, IMPORTANCE, AND FREQUENCY OF THERAPIST SELF-DISCLOSURE
Brooke F. Arens, Kirk M Lunnen (Westminster College)
Psychotherapy researchers have become increasingly interested in the effects of therapist self-disclosure in treatment. The current study surveyed 187 licensed psychotherapists in Pennsylvania, 18 psychotherapy clients, and 63 individuals with no history of psychotherapy, regarding their attitudes towards therapist self-disclosure using a modified version of the Counselor Disclosure Scale (CDS; Hendrick, 1988). Results showed various differences in attitudes among the therapists according to discipline, orientation, and experience level. Analyses also considered differences between therapists, clients, and non-clients.
INCREASING SOCIAL SUPPORT FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH SERIOUS MENTAL ILLNESS: RESULTS FROM THE EVALUATION OF COMPEER SERVICES, INC.
Erin C Dunn (Boston University, Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation)
Individuals with serious mental illness often experience difficulty in acquiring social support. Compeer Services, Inc. is a non-profit organization whose mission is to recruit adult volunteers from the community and match them with people in treatment for mental illness. The current study sought to evaluate the effect of receiving Compeer services on a number of outcomes, including perceived social support and social inclusion, empowerment, hope, attitudes towards recovery and utilization of traditional health services.
PERSONAL VALUES IN CONFLICT: THE ROLE OF THE CLINICIAN’S CORE BELIEFS IN WORKING WITH SUICIDAL CLIENTS
Mary E. Kelly, Sandra S. Lee (Seton Hall University)
Most clinicians will work with a suicidal client at some point. While legal and ethical guidelines must be considered when working with such clients, all clinicians also have an established set of core values. Values color all areas of decision-making, including choices of interventions in the therapeutic relationship. What happens when clinicians’ values conflict with the laws and ethical guidelines they must uphold? We review the current literature and provide an illustrative case study.
ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF A FAMILY PSYCHOEDUCATIONAL INTERVENTION
Warren A. Reich (The Family Center)
I assessed the impact of a psychoeducational intervention for HIV-affected families by examining family members’ perceptions of self and of one another. Adult and child participants from five families described themselves and each other at the beginning and end of the 10-week intervention. Hierarchical classes analysis revealed that (a) using negative trait terms was a stable family characteristic and (b) self-other congruence was sometimes increased by adding positive traits to the existing negative trait attributions.
TREATING NICOTINE DEPENDENCE IN MICA PATIENTS: A GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY APPROACH
Alla Landa, Lauren Silverman (Bellevue Hospital Center)
Group psychotherapy integrative approach based on the Trans-Theoretical Model of Change, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Motivational Interviewing, and Insight oriented therapies was adapted to treat nicotine dependence in MICA patients. Experience of treating patients on various levels of psychiatric and substance abuse recovery in a large urban psychiatric hospital (Bellevue Hospital, NY) will be described. Directions for future research are suggested.
ARE COMMUNITY BASED PROGRAMS USEFUL FOR THE TREATMENT OF THE SERIOUSLY MENTALLY ILL?
Dolly Sadow (Bedford Veterans Hospital)
Are community based programs usefull for the treatment of the seriously mentally ill? Is it possible to hae such programs function in accordance with the empowerment model? This presentation aims to address these specific questions using a specific program as an example. Treatment, quality of life, patient satisfaction and physical outcome are discussed.
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ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING PAPERS
8:30 AM - 10:00 AM Session 2154
Chair: James S. MacDonall (Fordham University)
FOCUS PAPER: THE WIDE WIDE WORLD OF STIMULUS INTERACTION INVITED PAPER)
Ralph R. Miller (SUNY-Binghamton), Martha Escobar (Auburn University)
For the last 35 years, learning theorists viewed stimulus interaction as synonymous with cue competition (i.e., competition between antecedent stimuli trained in compound; e.g., overshadowing). Indeed, most associative theories were explicitly designed to explain this type of stimulus interaction. However, there is growing evidence of outcome competition (i.e, competition between subsequent stimuli trained in compound) as well as cue interference (i.e., interference between antecedent stimuli trained apart) and outcome interference (i.e., interference between subsequent stimuli trained apart). These data will be reviewed and contemporary models of associative learning will be assessed in light of them.
IS A VARIABLE MISSING FROM THE CONCATENATED GENERALIZED MATCHING LAW?
James S. MacDonall (Fordham University)
In concurrent choice, are the ratios of rates of obtaining reinforcers, in the generalized matching law, necessary or sufficient conditions for changing preference? Concurrent schedules can be view as consisting of four schedules. By changing the values of these schedules, the ratio of rates of obtaining reinforcers varied independently of the ratio of rates of earning reinforcers. Results from 6 rats showed that ratio of rates of obtaining reinforces are neither necessary or sufficient conditions.
OCCASIONAL REINFORCED RESPONSES DURING EXTINCTION SLOW DOWN RAPID REACQUISITION IN OPERANT CONDITIONING
Amanda M. Woods, Mark E. Bouton (University of Vermont)
Two operant conditioning experiments investigated reacquisition following either extinction or a lean partial reinforcement schedule. Reacquisition was more rapid after extinction than after partial reinforcement. The results were extended in another experiment, in which a finer grained analysis revealed the effect was especially evident after early reinforcers. The results are consistent with findings in appetitive classical conditioning and suggest rapid reacquisition is a renewal effect in which reinforced trials constitute part of the conditioning context.
CONDITIONED RESPONDING UNDER ZERO AND NEGATIVE CONTINGENCIES
Kenneth W. Johns (University of Manitoba), Carla Lawson, Douglas A. Williams (University of Winnipeg)
Rats showed a temporally specific conditioned response (CR) when a single food pellet was delivered 10 seconds into a 120 second auditory conditioned stimulus. Acquisition of the CR was delayed, but not eliminated, when intertrial pellets were delivered making the overall contingency negative. Under negative contingencies, the CR did not transfer across contexts unless intertrial pellets were introduced. These data question whether a positive rate is a necessary precursor for successful temporal conditioning.
CONTEXT CHANGE EFFECTS UPON UNAMBIGUOUS INFORMATION IN HUMAN PREDICTIVE LEARNING
José E. Callejas-Aguilera, Ana García-Gutiérrez, Juan M. Rosas (University of Jaén)
In three experiments participants learned relationships between foods and malaise in contexts provided by restaurants. Simple food-malaise relationships learned in one context transferred to another. When a food was paired with no outcome (extinction) the second-learned information was context specific. First-learned information conditioned while another cue was extinguished was also context specific, regardless of where it was learned. Context specificity seems to depend on conditions leading participants to pay attention to the context.
PSI CHI FACULTY ADVISOR AND
CHAPTER PRESIDENT APPRECIATION BREAKFAST**
8:30 AM - 10:00 AM Session 2155
Chair: Vincent Prohaska (Psi Chi Eastern Region Vice-President, Lehman College, CUNY)
This breakfast, hosted by the Psi Chi Eastern Region Steering Committee, recognizes the terrific contributions of Psi Chi chapter faculty advisors and presidents.
** Advance registration is required. Contact Vincent Prohaska at firstname.lastname@example.org
WORKSHOP-POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY AND GLOBAL MANAGEMENT
8:30 AM - 10:00 AM Session 2156
Chair: Paul J. Lloyd (Southeast Missouri State University)
SandraW. Foster, Ann Marie O’Roark (Private Practice), Arthur Freedman (American University)
Within psychology today, there is a growing global movement towards “positive psychology” research, theory, practice. How can positive psychology be integrated into cross-national work consulting with organizations? In this workshop, experienced consulting psychologists present their own experiences as a platform for interactive discussion.
SELF-SILENCING AND INTERDEPENDENCE AMONG ETHNIC MINORITY ADOLESCENT GIRLS IN CANADA
Alisha Ali, Michele Jhun Lee (New York University)
This study was an exploratory investigation of self-silencing in a sample of 48 ethnic minority adolescent girls living in Canada. Self-silencing was examined to determine its role in the relationship between self-esteem and two types of self-construal: independence and interdependence. Results revealed a significant positive relationship between independence and self-esteem (r=.50; p<.001) and a significant negative relationship between interdependence and self-esteem (r=-.28; p<.05).
GENDER DIFFERENCES IN EVALUATIONS OF CLASSICAL MUSICAL PERFORMANCES
Susan Anthony -Tolbert, Caroline J. Kendall, Margery Miller, Robert L. Williams (Gallaudet University)
Sixty six reviews of classical music performances by critics in a metropolitan area were collected for one year. Six raters scored them independently for such variables as critic’s overall evaluation of the performance, article length, use of mitigating qualifiers, number of words, adjectives, passive voice sentences. Significantly more male musicians received good or excellent reviews. Significantly more male musicians received mitigating qualifying sentences in their reviews. Gender differences and biases are discussed.
A CRITICAL REVIEW OF POSTMODERN FEMINIST THEORIES
Dongxiao Qin, Dongxin Qin, Nancy C. Eugenio (Western New England College)
The overall aim of this article is to provide a critical review of postmodern feminist theory. Three main points of view are presented. First, cultural feminists’ essentialist claims of “gendered experiences for all women are introduced. Second, a postmodern feminist deconstructive reading of essentialist theory is discussed. Third, a postmodern perspective and its implications to feminist research are provided.
YOUTH, RACE, GENDER AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO POLITICAL ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOR: CONSTRUCTION OF A POLITICAL SURVEY
Charlton J. Coles, Eric Shelly (Kutztown University of Pennsylvania)
This study is an investigation of a systemic theory that histori-cally-discriminated groups in the United States would favor progressive social policies. This theory has application for race, gender, political behavior, and political attitude. One-hun-dred and six undergraduate students attending a public university in southeastern Pennsylvania agreed to participate in the study. The results of the initial investigation found a significant interaction between gender and race in terms of political attitude.
THE EFFECT OF PARTICIPANTS’ GENDER, ETHNICITY, AND THERAPY EXPERIENCE ON TENDENCY TO SELF-DISCLOSE
Mario J. Ponce, Jane Braden-Maguire, Janet Sigal, Matthew Zuch, Maureen Nally, Joseph Rolon, Shira Freundlich (Fairleigh Dickinson University)
One hundred nine male and female undergraduates read a scenario in which a female therapist was either 28 or 55, and either self-disclosed or did not self-disclose in therapy. The therapist who self-disclosed was rated as significantly more friendly. Male participants who were not in therapy self-disclosed more than other groups. Caucasian and African-American participants in therapy self-disclosed less than other ethnic groups.
EXPLORING GENDER DIFFERENCES: THE RELATIONHIP BETWEEN ACTUAL AND IDEAL BODY IMAGE, AUTOMATIC THOUGHTS REGARDING EATING AND SATISFACTION WITH BODY SHAPE
Nicole M. Presnar, Dave Schlueter (Clarion University of Pennsylvania)
This study examined differences between males and females regarding issues of own and ideal body image, automatic thoughts concerning eating habits, and satisfaction with body shape. Females tended to be less satisfied with their own body shape, though male and female perception of own shape did not differ. Females tended to have a thinner ideal shape. Thinner females and heavier males tended to engage in more automatic thoughts about food or eating.
GENDER AND SIZE EFFECTS ON PERCEPTIONS OF THE LEGAL SYSTEM’S RESPONSE TO DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
Kristen Senges, Lisa M. Gunther LaVergne, James Crisson (Greensboro College)
The purpose of this study was to examine participants’ perceptions of how domestic violence situations are handled by members of the justice system. More specifically, do participants believe that the justice system treats domestic abusers differently depending upon their gender and/or size? Results indicated that participants perceive that members of the justice system treat male abusers differently than females. Female and male participants sometimes also took into account the physical size of the abuser.
GENDER AND MARITAL AGGRESSION OVER THE LIFESPAN
Joelle A Sobin, Jamila Bookwala (Lafayette College), Bozena Zdaniuk (Center for Social and Urban Research, University of Pittsburgh)
We examined the relationship between gender and marital aggression over the life-span. We found age effects in 6,185 married adults; younger participants reported more use of maladaptive conflict resolution strategies, physical arguments, and sustained injuries than their older counterparts. Women were less likely to engage in calm discussions and more likely to argue/shout heatedly. For young adults, gender and sustained injuries were associated with women more likely to sustain injuries from their spouses than men.
INFIDELITY: DIFFERENCES IN PERCEPTIONS OF YOUNG ADULT MALES AND MIDDLE AGE MALES
Tara M. Yovine, Christy A. DeMaro, Lawrence T. Force, Paul D. Schwartz (Mount Saint Mary College)
Unfaithfulness is a behavior that has important implications for long standing relationships in our society. For some, infidelity is an issue that is inherent in the dynamics of relationships. The Practice of unfaithfulness is not confined to marital partners, but rather can influence the psychological health and well-being of all relationships. This paper evaluates two populations, young adult males, and middle-age males, to determine how two different age cohorts view infidelity. Findings show that these age groups have both similar and contrasting views concerning infidelity; these results have important implications for researchers and practitioners.
THE PERCEPTION OF AGE: A COMPARISON OF MEN AND WOMEN
Elizabeth L. Jones, Christy R. Jenkins, Lawrence T. Force, Paul D. Schwartz (Mount Saint Mary College)
As age expectancy increases and technology advances slow the aging process, there seems to be a difference between how men and women perceive age. With a growing population of the elderly, further investigation is warranted addressing the impact of negative aging stereotypes. In this study, utilizing a qualitative and quantitative methodology, differences were noted in how men and women preceive age. With the increase in demographics, the finding of this research project has implications for researchers, practitioners and policy makers.
GENDER DIFFERENCES IN RATES OF BREAST SELFEXAM AND TESTICULAR SELF-EXAM AMONGST A SAMPLE OF RESIDENTS IN A COLLEGE COMMUNITY
Sussie Eshun, Sunayana Nadkarni, Randy Yasenchak (East Stroudsburg University)
To investigate gender differences in rates of breast self-exam (BSE) and testicular self-exam (TSE), 311 adults in a college community were interviewed. Results indicated that females engaged in BSE more frequently than males did for TSE. Furthermore the most cited reason for doing BSE or TSE was personal knowledge, and that for not doing BSE or TSE was respondents not perceiving themselves as being at risk for health problems. Implications for health education are discussed.
PREDICTING LIKING IN UNACQUAINTED FEMALES: A TEST OF DIFFERING MODELS OF COMPLEMENTARITY
Elisabeth K. Cherry, Holly Serrao, Nicole Peters, Patrick
M. Markey (Villanova University)
Three theories of complementarity, Carson’s, Wiggins’s, and the similarity model, were examined in regards to initial liking in pairs of unacquainted females. Dyads rated the degree to which they liked their interaction partner after 9 minutes of interaction. Scores of complementarity were computed from answers provided on the Revised Interpersonal Adjective Scale. Correlations were computed for each of the models between complementarity scores and aggregated liking scores. Results indicated that Carson’s model best predicted liking.
THE PORTRAYAL OF WOMEN IN MAGAZINE ADVERTISEMENTS OVER AN 80-YEAR-SPAN
Lisa A. Smith, Rebecca A. Regeth (California University of Pennsylvania)
Cosmopolitan and Better Homes and Gardens magazine advertisements (1920 to 2000) were examined to determine trends in how women were represented. It was hypothesized that advertisements would show women in more liberal and multi-cultural ways over the years. Results indicate that current advertisements show women as more liberal in terms of dress and makeup than older advertisements. However, Caucasian was the dominant race of the models in the media the entire eight decades studied.
UNDERSTANDING GENDER DIFFERENCES IN SOCIAL SUPPORT AMONG UNDERGRADUATE COLLEGE STUDENTS
Julian Brown (Salem State College)
This study examined gender differences in social support in college students. Participants completed a questionnaire about social support. Females were more likely than males to go to significant others and friends for support. Women reported receiving more support than men, with fellow students providing advice and listening, and families providing advice, listening and spending time with them. Residential status did not affect support-seeking. Overall, results suggest males and females differ in their social support networks.
GENDER DIFFERENCES IN DISTANCING AS A FUNCTION OF THE MASCULINITY/FEMININITY OF THE TRAITS
George I. Whitehead (Salisbury University), Stephanie H. Smith (University of Indiana-Northwest)
This study replicated and extended the finding that women distance themselves less than men from another person regardless of whether the person has a life threatening illness. We also explored whether the gender difference was a function of self presentation and/or the masculinity/femininity of the items on the distancing measure. We found that the gender difference in distancing depended on the masculinity/femininity of the items and not self presentation.
GENDER DIFFERENCES VERSUS THE SIMILARITY APPROACH: EXAMINING TWO DIFFERENT MODELS OF MATE SELECTION
Christina M. DiBella, Holly Serrao, Patrick M. Markey (Villanova University)
The purpose of this experiment was evaluating how people choose mates. The similarity approach proposes that people desire mates similar to themselves. The gender difference approach purports that women are more discriminate in mate selection due to their long term investment in offspring. Participants filled out questionnaires measuring personality characteristics across the Five Factor Model. The results confirmed both approaches. Our study concluded that mate selection is equally based upon both one’s personality and gender.
DIFFERENCES IN ACTIVITY LEVELS BY RETIREMENT STATUS, OCCASION AND GENDER
Jillian K. Dunn, Lindsay H. Ryan, K. Warner Schaie, Sherry L. Willis (Pennsylvania State University)
Differences in activity levels on two occasions were examined in relation to retirement status, occasion and gender. Individuals retired at both occasions the most time doing crafts. Men spent more time talking than women and individuals in 1991 spent more time playing sports than in 1998. Individuals retired at both times spent more time cooking in 1991 than 1998. There were significant 3-way interactions between retirement status, occasion and gender for cultural activities and shopping.
FUTURE PLANNING: DIFFERENCES BETWEEN YOUNG ADULT FEMALES AND MALES
Tomas A. Canela , Robert G. Thorne, Lawrence T. Force, Paul Schwartz (Mount Saint Mary College)
Young adulthood is the time of a person’s life where they are building their foundation and preparing for the future. Within the stage of young adulthood, there are a variety of constructs that influence the outcome of development – including that of gender. Young adults may have much in common however, there are many gender differences which contribute to how someone plans for their future. Males and females in specific have different perspectives on many of the same issues and as a result, their perspectives cause variations in their future planning. This research project explores the attitudes and behavior between males and females and how these differences affect their future planning.
PARENTAL ATTACHMENT, IDENTITY AND INTIMACY IN FEMALE COLLEGE STUDENTS
Kendrick Forsthoff (State University of New York at Albany)
The effect of secure versus insecure parental attachment on identity and interpersonal functioning in college age females was assessed. Results revealed effects of secure attachment on interpersonal identity status and intimacy with a love partner, suggesting that parental attachment may influence females’ identity development and future relationships.
DOES THE DEVELOPMENT OF FEMINIST IDENTITY AMELIORATE THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF STEREOTYPE THREAT ON WOMEN’S PERFORMANCE ON SPATIAL COGNITION TASKS?
Nevena P. Zhelyazkova, Lauren E. Duncan (Smith College)
As Feminism provides an alternative framework for the interpretation of cultural messages, we hypothesize that participants who have developed a Feminist Identity will be less susceptible to the negative effects of Stereotype Threat. The scores of students majoring in Women’s Studies and other Social Sciences on a Mental Rotation task will be compared under two conditions: having read that so far men have outperformed women on the same task and that no gender differences have been observed.
USING PERSONALITY TO PREDICT LIKING IN FEMALE DYADS
Maureen E. Curley, Alexandra Reed, Patrick M. Markey (Villanova University)
The relationship between personality and liking was examined in this experiment. Participants for this investigation included unacquainted undergraduate female dyads. After completing the Big Factor Inventory participants interacted with each other for nine minutes. At the end of the interaction participants reported how much they liked each other. Findings indicated that females who were extraverted and disagreeable tended to be liked the most by other females.
UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS’ RATINGS OF THEIR ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIPS: GENDER DIFFERENCES IN PERCEIVED INTERPERSONAL NEGATIVITY WHEN THINGS ARE BAD
Megan Hosey, Ariele Garofalo, Christie P. Karpiak (University of Scranton)
Do young women and men differ in their perceptions of the interpersonal behaviors of their significant others? 54 undergraduates (37 women, 17 men) completed the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior questionnaires, rating behaviors of their significant others at their best and at their worst. Men viewed their significant others as showing significantly more hostility toward them when the relationship was at its worst than did women. Compared to normative data, women’s ratings appear unduly positive.
PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS AND PROMISCUITY IN YOUNG WOMEN AS JUDGED BY OTHER YOUNG WOMEN
Ryan M. Tourtellot, Gordon Bear (Ramapo College)
Among young women in America and Canada, those with plainer looks are more promiscuous (Walsh, 1993; Bogaert & Sadava, 2002). We asked American college women to make judgments about other women depicted in photographs posted on a Website for purposes of public rating. Judgments of a stimulus person’s physical attractiveness were not consistently related to judgments of how many sexual partners she had had or wanted to have.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENDER AND ALCOHOL RELATED CONSEQUENCES AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS WHO VIOLATED A UNIVERSITY ALCOHOL POLICY
Suzanne B. Kahrs, Stephanie Marshall, Tracey Rocha (Brown University)
College drinking is a serious public health concern that is growing at an alarming rate. Prior studies have found that 84.2 % of college students reported a heavy drinking or “binge drinking” episode within the previous 90 days (Vik, Tate, & Field, 2000). Moreover, as many as 500,000 of 4-year college students are injured or unintentionally hurt while under the influence of alcohol annually (Hingson et al, 2001).
ARE WOMEN THE CLEANER SEX? GENDER DIFFERENCES IN SELF-REPORTED HEALTH-RELATED BELIEFS, PERCEPTIONS, AND BEHAVIORS
Angela K. Fournier (Virginia Tech), Thomas D. Berry (Christopher Newport University), Bryan E. Porter (Old Dominion University), Ashley R. Holsomback, Sarah A. Dubose, Erin N. Earley, Elise K. Campbell (Christopher Newport University)
This poster presents findings from survey research on health-related behaviors and beliefs of college students. A total of 123 men and women at a university in southeastern Virginia completed a survey on hygiene behaviors, stress, mood, and beliefs about illness and preventative hygiene. Results indicate statistically significant differences between men and women in their reports of health-related behaviors (p < .05) and beliefs about preventative health-related behaviors (p < .001).
MATE CHOICES OF MEN AND WOMEN: THE ROLE OF ATTRACTIVENESS AND RELATIONSHIP STATUS
Paul M. Galvin, Bridgett Galvin (Framingham State College)
The “beautiful is good” stereotype suggests that attractive people have more desirable traits than less attractive people. In the current study, 254 participants provided their impression and likeliness to help a character that was either attractive or unattractive and who was perceived to be either in or not in a committed relationship. People seem most willing to help an attractive person in a relationship and least likely to help an unattractive person in a relationship.
BOYS AND BARBIES OR GIRLS AND GUNS: PERCEPTIONS OF ADJUSTMENT BASED UPON TOY PREFERENCES
Bridgett Galvin, Janelle Campell, Ryan Fernandez, Justin Bailey (Framingham State College)
A sample of 286 students read a scenario about a five-year old, accompanied by picture of a toy box of gender matched toys (boy toys, Ben; girl toys, Jill) or gender mismatched (Ben, girl toys; Jill, boy toys). Student perceptions of children’s toy preferences yielded a complex pattern of results for perceived present and future adjustment and peer relations. Implications of gender stereotypes and strengthening of those stereotypes during young adulthood are discussed.
Poster 28 GENDER DIFFERENCES IN COLOR NAMING
Erin N. Earley, Kristen M. Fauver, Rachel E. Boynton, Elise K. Campbell, Thomas D. Berry (Christopher Newport University)
The relation between gender and detail of color naming was examined using a test of fancy colors and basic colors. The participants consisted of 42 undergraduate students with an equal number of males and females. The study showed that (a) women score higher than men on a task identifying colors, (b) all participants used more detailed color words for fancy colors than basic colors, and (c) there was no significant difference for the interaction between gender and color. The results of the study are similar to the findings of previous research, which has shown that men and women use different language and terminology to describe the same colors.
WOMEN AGAINST WOMEN: FEMINIST IDENTITY IS INVERSELY RELATED TO LEVELS OF SDO AND SEXISM
Margaret E.Van Wyk, Gladynell Ceballos, Rob Foels (Hamilton College)
This study shows the correlation between feminist identity and levels of SDO. By supporting a social hierarchy, women reaffirm male dominance. Feminist identity plays an important role in the degree to which a woman endorses false consciousness. When feminist identity is low, women are more likely to engage in anti-egalitarian beliefs towards their ingroup; when high women reject the said inequality. These results suggest that acquiring a feminist identity leads to rejection of legitimizing ideologies.
THE ROLE OF SEXUAL ABUSE IN BODY IMAGE, SEXUAL ORIENTATION, AND EATING BEHAVIORS
Rebecca Burch, K. Schultz (State University of New York at Oswego)
This study investigated the role of sexual abuse in body image and eating behaviors in a college population. Significant gender differences were found in body image and eating behaviors, but most importantly, in the impact of sexual abuse on these behaviors. Males, although they did report incidents of sexu