Saturday AM: 2150-2152
LAY DESCRIPTIONS OF MENTAL ILLNESS
Tanvi Zaveri (Boston University)
To explore how lay individuals define mental illness and the degree to which these definitions are complementary or devaluing. 1) We asked 243 students at two Eastern Universities how they would define mental illness and how their society would define it. 2) We then selected the words or phrases that they provided and asked another set of 96 students to rate these words for their positive and negative connotations and established ratings for each of the words or phrases on the basis of these responses. 3) We then coded the original words and phrases. We hypothesize that such descriptions will be rated as generally highly negative and that individual definitions will be more positive relative to the definitions that they attributed to their societies. Our findings will be discussed in context of cross-cultural attitudes toward mental illness.
KOREAN PERSPECTIVES ON MENTAL ILLNESS
Hyo Soon You (Korean Open University), John Kim (Boston University)
This presentation will focus on research examining current attitudes toward mental illness in Korea. Specifically, this talk will discuss aspects of social cognition that impact attitudes toward and perceptions of mental illness in Korea.
CLINICAL INTERVENTION PAPERS
8:30 AM - 10:00 AM Session 2153
Chair: Mary E. Kelly (Seton Hall University)
A MULTIPERSPECTIVE EVALUATION OF DESIRABILITY, IMPORTANCE, AND FREQUENCY OF THERAPIST SELF-DISCLOSURE
Brooke F. Arens, Kirk M Lunnen (Westminster College)
Psychotherapy researchers have become increasingly interested in the effects of therapist self-disclosure in treatment. The current study surveyed 187 licensed psychotherapists in Pennsylvania, 18 psychotherapy clients, and 63 individuals with no history of psychotherapy, regarding their attitudes towards therapist self-disclosure using a modified version of the Counselor Disclosure Scale (CDS; Hendrick, 1988). Results showed various differences in attitudes among the therapists according to discipline, orientation, and experience level. Analyses also considered differences between therapists, clients, and non-clients.
INCREASING SOCIAL SUPPORT FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH SERIOUS MENTAL ILLNESS: RESULTS FROM THE EVALUATION OF COMPEER SERVICES, INC.
Erin C Dunn (Boston University, Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation)
Individuals with serious mental illness often experience difficulty in acquiring social support. Compeer Services, Inc. is a non-profit organization whose mission is to recruit adult volunteers from the community and match them with people in treatment for mental illness. The current study sought to evaluate the effect of receiving Compeer services on a number of outcomes, including perceived social support and social inclusion, empowerment, hope, attitudes towards recovery and utilization of traditional health services.
PERSONAL VALUES IN CONFLICT: THE ROLE OF THE CLINICIAN’S CORE BELIEFS IN WORKING WITH SUICIDAL CLIENTS
Mary E. Kelly, Sandra S. Lee (Seton Hall University)
Most clinicians will work with a suicidal client at some point. While legal and ethical guidelines must be considered when working with such clients, all clinicians also have an established set of core values. Values color all areas of decision-making, including choices of interventions in the therapeutic relationship. What happens when clinicians’ values conflict with the laws and ethical guidelines they must uphold? We review the current literature and provide an illustrative case study.
ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF A FAMILY PSYCHOEDUCATIONAL INTERVENTION
Warren A. Reich (The Family Center)
I assessed the impact of a psychoeducational intervention for HIV-affected families by examining family members’ perceptions of self and of one another. Adult and child participants from five families described themselves and each other at the beginning and end of the 10-week intervention. Hierarchical classes analysis revealed that (a) using negative trait terms was a stable family characteristic and (b) self-other congruence was sometimes increased by adding positive traits to the existing negative trait attributions.
TREATING NICOTINE DEPENDENCE IN MICA PATIENTS: A GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY APPROACH
Alla Landa, Lauren Silverman (Bellevue Hospital Center)
Group psychotherapy integrative approach based on the Trans-Theoretical Model of Change, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Motivational Interviewing, and Insight oriented therapies was adapted to treat nicotine dependence in MICA patients. Experience of treating patients on various levels of psychiatric and substance abuse recovery in a large urban psychiatric hospital (Bellevue Hospital, NY) will be described. Directions for future research are suggested.
ARE COMMUNITY BASED PROGRAMS USEFUL FOR THE TREATMENT OF THE SERIOUSLY MENTALLY ILL?
Dolly Sadow (Bedford Veterans Hospital)
Are community based programs usefull for the treatment of the seriously mentally ill? Is it possible to hae such programs function in accordance with the empowerment model? This presentation aims to address these specific questions using a specific program as an example. Treatment, quality of life, patient satisfaction and physical outcome are discussed.
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ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING PAPERS
8:30 AM - 10:00 AM Session 2154
Chair: James S. MacDonall (Fordham University)
FOCUS PAPER: THE WIDE WIDE WORLD OF STIMULUS INTERACTION INVITED PAPER)
Ralph R. Miller (SUNY-Binghamton), Martha Escobar (Auburn University)
For the last 35 years, learning theorists viewed stimulus interaction as synonymous with cue competition (i.e., competition between antecedent stimuli trained in compound; e.g., overshadowing). Indeed, most associative theories were explicitly designed to explain this type of stimulus interaction. However, there is growing evidence of outcome competition (i.e, competition between subsequent stimuli trained in compound) as well as cue interference (i.e., interference between antecedent stimuli trained apart) and outcome interference (i.e., interference between subsequent stimuli trained apart). These data will be reviewed and contemporary models of associative learning will be assessed in light of them.
IS A VARIABLE MISSING FROM THE CONCATENATED GENERALIZED MATCHING LAW?
James S. MacDonall (Fordham University)
In concurrent choice, are the ratios of rates of obtaining reinforcers, in the generalized matching law, necessary or sufficient conditions for changing preference? Concurrent schedules can be view as consisting of four schedules. By changing the values of these schedules, the ratio of rates of obtaining reinforcers varied independently of the ratio of rates of earning reinforcers. Results from 6 rats showed that ratio of rates of obtaining reinforces are neither necessary or sufficient conditions.
OCCASIONAL REINFORCED RESPONSES DURING EXTINCTION SLOW DOWN RAPID REACQUISITION IN OPERANT CONDITIONING
Amanda M. Woods, Mark E. Bouton (University of Vermont)
Two operant conditioning experiments investigated reacquisition following either extinction or a lean partial reinforcement schedule. Reacquisition was more rapid after extinction than after partial reinforcement. The results were extended in another experiment, in which a finer grained analysis revealed the effect was especially evident after early reinforcers. The results are consistent with findings in appetitive classical conditioning and suggest rapid reacquisition is a renewal effect in which reinforced trials constitute part of the conditioning context.
CONDITIONED RESPONDING UNDER ZERO AND NEGATIVE CONTINGENCIES
Kenneth W. Johns (University of Manitoba), Carla Lawson, Douglas A. Williams (University of Winnipeg)
Rats showed a temporally specific conditioned response (CR) when a single food pellet was delivered 10 seconds into a 120 second auditory conditioned stimulus. Acquisition of the CR was delayed, but not eliminated, when intertrial pellets were delivered making the overall contingency negative. Under negative contingencies, the CR did not transfer across contexts unless intertrial pellets were introduced. These data question whether a positive rate is a necessary precursor for successful temporal conditioning.
CONTEXT CHANGE EFFECTS UPON UNAMBIGUOUS INFORMATION IN HUMAN PREDICTIVE LEARNING
José E. Callejas-Aguilera, Ana García-Gutiérrez, Juan M. Rosas (University of Jaén)
In three experiments participants learned relationships between foods and malaise in contexts provided by restaurants. Simple food-malaise relationships learned in one context transferred to another. When a food was paired with no outcome (extinction) the second-learned information was context specific. First-learned information conditioned while another cue was extinguished was also context specific, regardless of where it was learned. Context specificity seems to depend on conditions leading participants to pay attention to the context.
PSI CHI FACULTY ADVISOR AND
CHAPTER PRESIDENT APPRECIATION BREAKFAST**
8:30 AM - 10:00 AM Session 2155
Chair: Vincent Prohaska (Psi Chi Eastern Region Vice-President, Lehman College, CUNY)
This breakfast, hosted by the Psi Chi Eastern Region Steering Committee, recognizes the terrific contributions of Psi Chi chapter faculty advisors and presidents.
** Advance registration is required. Contact Vincent Prohaska at firstname.lastname@example.org
WORKSHOP-POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY AND GLOBAL MANAGEMENT
8:30 AM - 10:00 AM Session 2156
Chair: Paul J. Lloyd (Southeast Missouri State University)
SandraW. Foster, Ann Marie O’Roark (Private Practice), Arthur Freedman (American University)
Within psychology today, there is a growing global movement towards “positive psychology” research, theory, practice. How can positive psychology be integrated into cross-national work consulting with organizations? In this workshop, experienced consulting psychologists present their own experiences as a platform for interactive discussion.
SELF-SILENCING AND INTERDEPENDENCE AMONG ETHNIC MINORITY ADOLESCENT GIRLS IN CANADA
Alisha Ali, Michele Jhun Lee (New York University)
This study was an exploratory investigation of self-silencing in a sample of 48 ethnic minority adolescent girls living in Canada. Self-silencing was examined to determine its role in the relationship between self-esteem and two types of self-construal: